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Glossary
 Подробности
 Автор: Татьяна Ёжикова

Опубликовано: 15 ноября 2017

Просмотров: 124
Glossary
A  
absolute value  The distance of a number from zero; the positive value of a number.  at the picture 
acute angle  A positive angle measuring less than 90 degrees.  
acute triangle  A triangle each of whose angles measures less than 90 degrees.  
additive identity  The number zero is called the additive identity because the sum of zero and any number is that number.  
additive inverse  The additive inverse of any number x is the number that gives zero when added to x. The additive inverse of 5 is 5.  
adjacent angles  Two angles that share both a side and a vertex.  
angle  The union of two rays with a common endpoint, called the vertex.  
arc  A portion of the circumference of a circle.  
area  The number of square units that covers a shape or figure.  
associative property of addition  (a + b) + c = a + (b + c)  
associative property of multiplication  (a x b) x c = a x (b x c)  
average  A number that represents the characteristics of a data set.  
axis of symmetry  A line that passes through a figure in such a way that the part of the figure on one side of the line is a mirror reflection of the part on the other side of the line.  
B  
base  The bottom of a plane figure or threedimensional figure.  
bisect  To divide into two congruent parts.  
box and whisker plot  A type of data plot that displays the quartiles and range of a data set.  
C  
Cartesian coordinates  A system in which points on a plane are identified by an ordered pair of numbers, representing the distances to two or three perpendicular axes.  
central angle  An angle that has its vertex at the center of a circle.  
chord  A line segment that connects two points on a curve.  
circle  The set of points in a plane that are a fixed distance from a given point, called the center.  
circumference  The distance around a circle.  
coefficient  A constant that multiplies a variable.  
collinear  Points are collinear if they lie on the same line.  
combination  A selection in which order is not important.  
common factor  A factor of two or more numbers.  
common multiple  A multiple of two or more numbers.  
commutative property of addition  a + b = b + a.  
commutative property of multiplication  a*b = b*a.  
complementary angles  Two angles whose sum is 90 degrees.  
composite number  A natural number that is not prime.  
cone  A threedimensional figure with one vertex and a circular base.  
congruent  Figures or angles that have the same size and shape.  
constant  A value that does not change.  
coordinate plane  The plane determined by a horizontal number line, called the xaxis, and a vertical number line, called the yaxis, intersecting at a point called the origin. Each point in the coordinate plane can be specified by an ordered pair of numbers.  
coplanar  Points that lie within the same plane.  
counting numbers  The natural numbers, or the numbers used to count.  
counting principle  If a first event has n outcomes and a second event has m outcomes, then the first event followed by the second event has n times m outcomes.  
cross product  A product found by multiplying the numerator of one fraction by the denominator of another fraction and the denominator of the first fraction by the numerator of the second.  
cube  A solid figure with six square faces.  
cylinder  A threedimensional figure having two parallel bases that are congruent circles.  
D  
data  Information that is gathered.  
decimal number  The numbers in the base 10 number system, having one or more places to the right of a decimal point.  
degree  A unit of measure of an angle.  
denominator  The bottom part of a fraction.  
dependent events  Two events in which the outcome of the second is influenced by the outcome of the first.  
diagonal  The line segment connecting two nonadjacent vertices in a polygon.  
diameter  The line segment joining two points on a circle and passing through the center of the circle.  
difference  The result of subtracting two numbers.  
digit  The ten symbols, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9. The number 215 has three digits: 2, 1, and 5.  
distributive property  a(b + c) = ab + ac  
dividend  In a / b = c, a is the dividend.  
divisor  In a / b = c, b is the divisor.  
E  
ellipse  The set of all points in a plane such that the sum of the distances to two fixed points is a constant.  
equation  A mathematical statement that says that two expressions have the same value; any number sentence with an =.  
equilateral triangle  A triangle that has three equal sides.  
equivalent equations  Two equations whose solutions are the same.  
equivalent fractions  Fractions that reduce to the same number.  
error of measurement  The difference between an approximate measurement and the actual measure taken.  
evaluate  To substitute number values into an expression.  
even number  A natural number that is divisible by 2.  
event  In probability, a set of outcomes.  
exponent  A number that indicates the operation of repeated multiplication.  
equivalent fractions  Fractions that reduce to the same number.  
F  
factor  One of two or more expressions that are multiplied together to get a product.  
factorial  To break a number into its factors.  
face  A flat surface of a threedimensional figure.  
formula  A equation that states a rule or a fact.  
fraction  A number used to name a part of a group or a whole. The number below the bar is the denominator, and the number above the bar is the numerator.  
frequency  The number of times a particular item appears in a data set.  
frequency table  A data listing which also lists the frequencies of the data.  
G  
graph  A type of drawing used to represent data.  
greatest common factor (GCF)  The largest number that divides two or more numbers evenly.  
H  
horizontal  A line with zero slope.  
hypotenuse  The side opposite the right angle in a right triangle.  
I  
identity property of addition  The sum of any number and 0 is that number.  
identity property of multiplication  The product of 1 and any number is that number.  
improper fraction  A fraction with a numerator that is greater than the denominator.  
independent events  Two events in which the outcome of the second is not affected by the outcome of the first.  
inequality  A mathematical expression which shows that two quantities are not equal.  read this 
infinity  A limitless quantity.  
inscribed angle  An angle placed inside a circle with its vertex on the circle and whose sides contain chords of the circle.  
inscribed polygon  A polygon placed inside a circle so that each vertex of the polygon touches the circle.  
interval notation  read this  
integers  The set of numbers containing zero, the natural numbers, and all the negatives of the natural numbers.  
intercept  The xintercept of a line or curve is the point where it crosses the xaxis, and the y intercept of a line or curve is the point where it crosses the yaxis.  
intercepted arc  The arc of a circle within an inscribed angle.  
interpolation  A method for estimating values that lie between two known values.  
intersecting lines  Lines that have one and only one point in common.  
inverse  Opposite. 5 is the additive inverse of 5, because their sum is zero. 1/3 is the multiplicative inverse of 3, because their product is 1.  
inverse operations  Two operations that have the opposite effect, such as addition and subtraction.  
irrational number  A number that cannot be expressed as the ratio of two integers.  
isosceles triangle  A triangle with at least two equal sides.  
L  
least common denominator  The smallest multiple of the denominators of two or more fractions.  
least common multiple  The smallest nonzero number that is a multiple of two or more numbers.  
like fractions  Fractions that have the same denominator.  
line  A straight set of points that extends into infinity in both directions.  
line of symmetry  Line that divides a geometric figure into two congruent portions.  
line segment  Two points on a line, and all the points between those two points.  
locus  A path of points.  
logic  The study of sound reasoning.  
lowest terms  Simplest form; when the GCF of the numerator and the denominator of a fraction is 1.  
M  
mean  In a data set, the sum of all the data points, divided by the number of data points; average.  
median  The middle number in a data set when the data are put in order; a type of average.  
midpoint  A point on a line segment that divides the segment into two congruent segments.  
mixed number  A number written as a whole number and a fraction.  
mode  A type of average; the number (or numbers) that occurs most frequently in a set of data.  
multiple  A multiple of a number is the product of that number and any other whole number. Zero is a multiple of every number.  
multiplicative identity  The number 1 is the multiplicative identity because multiplying 1 times any number gives that number.  
multiplicative inverse  The reciprocal of a number.  
mutually exclusive events  Two or more events that cannot occur at the same time.  
N  
natural numbers  The counting numbers.  
negative number  A real number that is less than zero.  
normal  Perpendicular.  
number line  A line on which every point represents a real number.  
numerator  The top part of a fraction.  
O  
obtuse angle  An angle whose measure is greater than 90 degrees.  
obtuse triangle  A triangle with an obtuse angle.  
octagon  A polygon with 8 sides.  
odd number  A whole number that is not divisible by 2.  
operation  Addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are the basic arithmetic operations.  
opposites  Two numbers that lie the same distance from 0 on the number line but in opposite directions.  
ordered pair  Set of two numbers in which the order has an agreedupon meaning, such as the Cartesian coordinates (x, y), where the first coordinate represents the horizontal position, and the second coordinate represents the vertical position.  
origin  The point (0, 0) on a coordinate plane, where the xaxis and the yaxis intersect.  
outcome  In probability, a possible result of an experiment.  
P  
parallel  Two lines are parallel if they are in the same plane and never intersect.  
parallelogram  A quadrilateral with opposite sides parallel.  
pentagon  A fivesided polygon.  
percent  A fraction, or ratio, in which the denominator is assumed to be 100. The symbol % is used for percent.  read here 
perimeter  The sum of the lengths of the sides of a polygon.  
permutation  A way to arrange things in which order is important.  
perpendicular  Two lines are perpendicular if the angle between them is 90 degrees.  
pi  The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter.  
plane  A flat surface that stretches into infinity.  
point  A location in a plane or in space, having no dimensions.  
polygon  A closed plane figure made up of several line segments that are joined together.  
polyhedron  A threedimensional solid that is bounded by plane polygons.  
positive number  A real number greater than zero.  
power  A number that indicates the operation of repeated multiplication.  
prime number  A number whose only factors are itself and 1.  
probability  For an experiment, the total number of successful events divided by the total number of possible events.  
product  The result of two numbers being multiplied together.  
proper fraction  A fraction whose numerator is less than its denominator.  
proportion  An equation of fractions in the form: a/b = c/d  
protractor  a/b = c/d  
pyramid  A device for measuring angles.  
Pythagorean Theorem  The theorem that relates the three sides of a right triangle: a2+b2=c2  
Q  
quadrant  One of the quarters of the plane of the Cartesian coordinate system  
quadrilateral  A polygon with 4 sides.  
quotient  The answer to a division problem.  
R  
radius  The distance from the center to a point on a circle; the line segment from the center to a point on a circle.  
range  In statistics, the difference between the largest and the smallest numbers in a data set.  
rate  A ratio that compares different kinds of units.  
ratio  A pair of numbers that compares different types of units.  
rational number  A number that can be expressed as the ratio of two integers.  
ray  part of a line, with one endpoint, and extending to infinity in one direction.  
real numbers  The combined set of rational numbers and irrational numbers.  
reciprocal  The number which, when multiplied times a particular fraction, gives a result of 1.  
rectangle  A quadrilateral with four 90degree angles.  
reflection  A transformation resulting from a flip.  
regular polygon  A polygon in which all the angles are equal and all of the sides are equal.  
repeating decimal  A decimal in which the digits endlessly repeat a pattern.  
rhombus  A parallelogram with four equal sides.  
right angle  An angle whose measure is 90 degrees.  
right triangle  A triangle that contains a right angle.  
root  The root of an equation is the same as the solution to the equation.  
rotation  A transformation in which a figure is rotated through a given angle, about a point.  
S  
sample space  For an experiment, the sample space includes all the possible outcomes.  
scale drawing  A drawing that is a reduction or enlargement of the original.  
scalene triangle  A triangle with three unequal sides.  
scattergram  A graph with points plotted on a coordinate plane.  
scientific notation  A method for writing extremely large or small numbers compactly in which the number is shown as the product of two factors.  
set  A welldefined group of objects.  
similar  Two polygons are similar if their corresponding sides are proportional.  
simplifying  Reducing to lowest terms.  
skew lines  Lines that are not in the same plane and that do not intersect.  
slope  The steepness of a line expressed as a ratio, using any two points on the line.  
solution  The value of a variable that makes an equation true.  
sphere  A threedimensional figure with all points in space a fixed distance from a given point, called the center.  
square  A quadrilateral with four equal sides and four 90 degree angles.  
square root  The square root of x is the number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the number, x.  
statistics  The science of collecting, organizing, and analyzing data.  
stem and leaf plot  A technique for organizing data for comparison.  
straight angle  An angle that measures 180 degrees.  
supplementary angles  Two angles are supplementary if their sum is 180 degrees.  
surface area  For a threedimensional figure, the sum of the areas of all the faces.  
T  
terminating decimal  A fraction whose decimal representation contains a finite number of digits.  
translation  A transformation, or change in position, resulting from a slide with no turn.  
transformation  A change in the position, shape, or size of a geometric figure.  
transversal  A line that intersects two other lines.  
trapezoid  A quadrilateral that has exactly two sides parallel.  
tree diagram  A diagram that shows outcomes of an experiment.  
triangle  A threesided polygon.  
U  
unit price  Price per unit of measure.  
V  
variable  A letter used to represent a number value in an expression or an equation.  
vertex  The point on an angle where the two sides intersect.  
vertical angles  A pair of opposite angles that is formed by intersecting lines.  
volume  A measurement of space, or capacity.  
W  
whole numbers  The set of numbers that includes zero and all of the natural numbers.  
X  
xaxis  The horizontal axis in a Cartesian coordinate plane.  
xintercept  The value of x at the point where a line or curve crosses the xaxis.  
Y  
yaxis  The vertical axis in a Cartesian coordinate system.  
yintercept  The value of y at the point where a curve crosses the yaxis.  
Z  
zero  The additive identity; the number that, when added to another number n, gives n.  
zero property of multiplication  The product of zero and any number is zero. 